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C (/ˈsiː/, as in the letter c) is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations. By design, C provides constructs that map efficiently to typical machine instructions, and therefore it has found lasting use in applications that had formerly been coded in assembly language, including operating systems, as well as various application software for computers ranging from supercomputers to embedded systems.
C was originally developed by Dennis Ritchie between 1969 and 1973 at Bell Labs, and used to re-implement the Unix operating system. It has since become one of the most widely used programming languages of all time, with C compilers from various vendors available for the majority of existing computer architectures and operating systems. C has been standardized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) since 1989 (see ANSI C) and subsequently by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
C was initially used for system development work, particularly the programs that make-up the operating system. C was adopted as a system development language because it produces code that runs nearly as fast as the code written in assembly language. Some examples of the use of C might be:
The origin of C is closely tied to the development of the Unix operating system, originally implemented in assembly language on a PDP-7 by Ritchie and Thompson, incorporating several ideas from colleagues. Eventually, they decided to port the operating system to a PDP-11. The original PDP-11 version of Unix was developed in assembly language. The developers were considering rewriting the system using the B language, Thompson's simplified version of BCPL. However B's inability to take advantage of some of the PDP-11's features, notably byte addressability, led to C.
The development of C started in 1972 on the PDP-11 Unix system and first appeared in Version 2 Unix. The language was not initially designed with portability in mind, but soon ran on different platforms as well: a compiler for the Honeywell 6000 was written within the first year of C's history, while an IBM System/370 port followed soon. The name of C simply continued the alphabetic order started by B.
Also in 1972, a large part of Unix was rewritten in C. By 1973, with the addition of struct types, the C language had become powerful enough that most of the Unix's kernel was now in C.
Unix was one of the first operating system kernels implemented in a language other than assembly. (Earlier instances include the Multics system (written in PL/I), and MCP (Master Control Program) for the Burroughs B5000 written in ALGOL in 1961.) Circa 1977, Ritchie and Stephen C. Johnson made further changes to the language to facilitate portability of the Unix operating system. Johnson's Portable C Compiler served as the basis for several implementations of C on new platforms.
C is better learned from practice, but one of the most important part of learning is reading books. Books can make you understand the concepts better. Below are major C programming language categorized into three main categories -- beginner, intermediate, and advanced. Pick the book that fits into radar, and start learning C now!
by Greg Perry
Write powerful C programs …without becoming a technical expert! This book is the fastest way to get comfortable with C, one incredibly clear and easy step at a time. You’ll learn all the basics: how to organize programs, store and display data, work with variables, operators, I/O, pointers, arrays, functions, and much more. C programming has never been this simple! Who knew how simple C programming could be?
Programming in C will teach you how to write programs in the C programming language. Whether you’re a novice or experienced programmer, this book will provide you with a clear understanding of this language, which is the foundation for many object-oriented programming languages such as C++, Objective-C, C#, and Java. This book teaches C by example, with complete C programs used to illustrate each new concept along the way. Stephen Kochan provides step-by-step explanations for all C functions. You will learn both the language fundamentals and good programming practices. Exercises at the end of each chapter make the book ideally suited for classroom use or for self-instruction. All the features of the C language are covered in this book, including the latest additions added with the C11 standard. Appendixes provide a detailed summary of the language and the standard C library, both organized for quick reference.
by Mike McGrath
C Programming in easy steps, 4th edition has an easy-to-follow style that will appeal to anyone who wants to begin programming in C, from programmers moving from another programming language, to the student who is studying C programming at school or college, or to those seeking a career in computing who need a fundamental understanding of procedural programming.
Intermediate C Programming provides a stepping-stone for intermediate-level students to go from writing short programs to writing real programs well. It shows students how to identify and eliminate bugs, write clean code, share code with others, and use standard Linux-based tools, such as ddd and valgrind.
The new classic! C Primer Plus, now in its 5th edition, has been revised to include over 20 new programming exercises, newly improved examples and the new ANSI/ISO standard, C99. Task-oriented examples will teach you the fundamentals of C programming. From extended integer types and compound literals to Boolean support and variable-length arrays, you will learn to create practical and real-world applications with C programming. Review questions and programming exercises at the end of each chapter will reinforce what you have learned. This friendly and easy-to-use self-study guide will help you understand the fundamentals of this core programming language.
by K. N. King
The first edition of C Programming: A Modern Approach was popular with students and faculty alike because of its clarity and comprehensiveness as well as its trademark Q&A sections. Professor King's spiral approach made it accessible to a broad range of readers, from beginners to more advanced students. With adoptions at over 225 colleges, the first edition was one of the leading C textbooks of the last ten years. The second edition maintains all the book's popular features and brings it up to date with coverage of the C99 standard. The new edition also adds a significant number of exercises and longer programming projects, and includes extensive revisions and updates.
This book is for the knowledgeable C programmer, this is a second book that gives the C programmers advanced tips and tricks. This book will help the C programmer reach new heights as a professional. Organized to make it easy for the reader to scan to sections that are relevant to their immediate needs.
This practical, example-driven, code-centered book is intended for intermediate-level C programmers who want to take their skills to the next level. The book builds on readers' existing background in C to complete their knowledge of ANSI C libraries, and the conceptual and syntactic structures needed to master dynamic data structures, string parsing and numeric conversion, memory management, bit-level manipulation, interactions with operating systems, and other advanced techniques. What sets this book apart from traditional data structures books is it's "blue collar" approach to the art of programming — how to master the "down in the trenches" C details to implement abstract ideas successfully. In recognition of this approach, the book presents actual C code rather than pseudocode.
There are tons of C/C++ communities that help foster the growth of the C/C++. C/C++ has many online forums and communities which provide comprehensive support and guidance. If you are looking for programming in C/C++, you can join the communities and get the best possible results.
The founder of Quantum Leaps and author of the book Practical UML Statecharts in C and C++, has written dozens of articles for trade magazines, is a frequent speaker at the Embedded Systems Conferences, and serves on the editorial review board of the Embedded Systems Design magazine.Miro’s blog is State Space
Canadian computer scientist who worked at Bell Labs along side Unix creators Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie and contributed to the development of Unix. He is also coauthor of the AWK and AMPL programming languages. The "K" of K&R C and the "K" in AWK both stand for "Kernighan". Since 2000 Brian Kernighan has been a Professor at the Computer Science Department of Princeton University, where he is also the Undergraduate Department Representative.Facebook
Commonly referred to as ken in hacker circles, is an American pioneer of computer science. Having worked at Bell Labs for most of his career, Thompson designed and implemented the original Unix operating system. He also invented the B programming language, the direct predecessor to the C programming language, and was one of the creators and early developers of the Plan 9 operating systems. Since 2006, Thompson has worked at Google, where he co-invented the Go programming language.Facebook
American computer scientist. Joy co-founded Sun Microsystems in 1982 along with Vinod Khosla, Scott McNealy and Andreas von Bechtolsheim, and served as chief scientist at the company until 2003. He played an integral role in the early development of BSD UNIX while a graduate student at Berkeley, and he is the original author of the vi text editor. He also wrote the 2000 essay "Why the Future Doesn't Need Us", in which he expressed deep concerns over the development of modern technologies.Facebook
Below is the list of some of the oldest C conferences. The programming language is almost four decades old, and that’s why new C conferences rarely happens! Let’s check out some of the old C conferences that took place around the world.
Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages (POPL) is an academic conference in the field of computer science, with focus on fundamental principles in the design, definition, analysis, and implementation of programming languages, programming systems, and programming interfaces. The venue is jointly sponsored by the two Association for Computing Machinery Special Interest Groups: SIGPLAN and SIGACT.
Is one of the ACM SIGPLAN's most important conferences. The precursor of PLDI was the Symposium on Compiler Optimization, held July 27–28, 1970 at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and chaired by Robert S. Northcote. That conference included papers by Frances E. Allen, John Cocke, Alfred V. Aho, Ravi Sethi, and Jeffrey D. Ullman. The first conference in the current PLDI series took place in 1979 under the name SIGPLAN Symposium on Compiler Construction in Denver, Colorado.
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